Nrfoto Bjrn Rrslett: Professional Nature Photographer

Nrfoto Bjrn Rrslett: Professional Nature Photographer
Plant/
Family
Flower Colour Ultraviolet Features

(Strong, intermediate etc. refer to a UV-visible bull's-eye pattern of the flower. Other patterns may appear as duly noted)

Amaryllidaceae Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Bright-deep yellow Not a bull's eye pattern, but the flower appears flamed in UV light with alternating high- and low-UV reflecting stripes Apiaceae Angelica sylvestris L. White Low UV reflectance of entire flower, but very strong UV fluorescence of the nectar glands Carum carvi L. Dullish white or reddish   Apocynaceae Vinca minor L. Light violet Strong UV reflectance, but a bull's eye pattern is not very prominently developed. High reflectance in near IR, though

Asteraceae

Achillea millefolium L. Dullish white Very weak Anthemis tinctoria L. Dark yellow Intermediate - strong, some UV fluorescence Arnica angustfifolia Vahl Dark yellow Very strong bull's eye pattern Aster tripolium L. Light violet Intermediate, coincides with visual pattern Bidens sp. Deep yellow Big, very prominent UV marks Calendula officinalis L. Orange Strong bull's eye Centaurea jacea L. Purple Intermediate - strong Chrysanthemum segetum L. Bright yellow None (all the flower head absorbs UV) Cicerbita alpina (L.)Wallr. Light violet Intermediate Cichorium intybus L. Light blue Intermediate - strong UV marking       Crepis biennis L. Bright yellow Strong, but not well delineated Doronicum orientale Hoffm. Deep yellow Very strong bull's eye pattern. UV fluorescence. Hieracium aurantiacum L. Reddish Unusual, chequered pattern Hieracium subg. Pilosella Yellow Variegated UV pattern Hieracium sect. Prenathaea Yellow Strong Hieracium sect. Sylvatica Yellow Strong Lapsana communis L. Yellow Strong Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. White petals, yellow centre disc Weak, some zonation across central floral disc, low UV reflectance of outer flower areas Leontodon autumnale L. Yellow Strong Mycelia muralis (L.)Dum. Light yellow Intermediate - strong Petasites hybridus (L.)Gaertner, Meyer & Scherb. Very light pink, rarely light yellow Strong UV fluorescence Rudbeckia hirta L. Bright yellow Strong. Very large and prominent UV marks Senecio aquaticus Hill. Bright yellow Very strong, entire centre absorbs UV Senecio jacobea L. Deep yellow Very strong Senecio viscosus L. Light yellow Ray flowers strongly reflect UV Sonchus arvensis L. Deep yellow Strong bull's eye pattern, but UV delineation against the flower periphery is blurred (a common trait to UV marks of many composite flowers, by the way) Sonchus oleraceus L. Light yellow Strong Tanacetum vulgare L. Deep yellow Negligible. Some zonation across the floral discs on the onset of flowering Taraxum vulgare Web. Yellow Usually extremely pronounced, but quite variable extent of bull's-eye pattern. Dandelions are really a cluster of related, apomictic microspecies. This helps explain why the UV markings may vary so much Tragopogon pratensis L. ssp. minor (Mill.)Hartm. Deep yellow No typical bull's eye pattern, but strongly UV-reflective bracts contribute to form a two-zoned flower head Tripleurospermum maritium (L.)W.D.J. Koch White Strong bull's eye Tussilago farfara L. Yellow Strong bull's-eye pattern, but variable UV reflectance of outer petals

Brassicaceae

Alliaria petiolata (Bib.)Cavara & Grande White Intermediate. Anthers and pollen absorb strongly in UV Barbarea vulgaris (L.)R.Br. Yellow Strong Berteroa incana (L.)DC. White Not a typical bull's eye pattern in its small flowers. However, there are floral buds and stigma with a prominent UV fluorescence Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Yellow Strong bull's eye pattern Bunias orientalis L. Light yellow No bull's eye pattern, but quite high UV reflectance of petals Erysimum hieracifolium L. Yellow Petals darkish under UV light, buds and non-fertilised flowers show strong UV fluorescence Hesperis matronalis L. Pink, mauve or purple Intermediate, UV fluorescence Rorippa sylvestris (L.)Bess. Yellow Intermediate - strong Sinapis arvensis L. Yellow Very strong bull's-eye pattern, young buds absorb UV, too

Campanulaceae

Campanula glomerata L. Dark purple Intermediate to strong two-zoned pattern, very high UV reflectance of outer floral parts Campanula latifolia L. White or blue   Campanula rapunculoides L. Light violet Intermediate to strong UV marking Campanula persicifolia L. Deep or sky blue Very high UV reflectance of corolla, high UV absorption from stigma and anthers Campanula rotundifolia L. Light to sky blue Intermediate, UV marks mainly on pistils and stigma Campanula trachelium L. Bright-dullish blue, with greyish tint Very high UV reflectance of corolla and buds, stigma absorbs UV, nectaria fluoresce in UV Jasione montana L. Bright blue Flower heads with a mosaic of UV-absorbing or reflecting areas Lobelia dortmanna L. White or pinkish purple  

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera perclymemum L. Creamy white Weak Caryophyllaceae Cerastium arvense L. White Strong Dianthus deltoides L. Pinkish or light purple Strong, high IR reflectance, UV fluorescence Lychnis viscaria L. Bright purple Strong, high IR reflectance Saponaria officinalis L. Light pink Petals and anthers absorb UV, the border of petals do reflect UV Silene armeria L. Bright purple Intermediate - high UV reflectance, depending on floral stage Silene dioica (L.)Clairv. Bright purple or red Strong UV pattern, high IR reflectance Silene uniflora Roth White Intermediate

Convolvulaceae

Calystegia sepium (L.)R.Br. Pinkish or white Intermediate - strong UV pattern Convolvulus arvensis L. White and pink Intermediate, reflects also strongly in IR Cuscuta europaea L. ssp. halophyta (Fr.)Hartm. Pinkish white Whole corolla absorbs UV strongly, some UV fluorescence from young flowers

Crassulaceae

Sedum acre L. Yellow Intermediate - strong Sedum reflexum     Sedum telephium L. Light yellowish None Dipsacaceae Knautia arvensis (L.)Coult. Purplish-violet Intermediate - strong, unusual chequered UV pattern Droseraceae Drosera longifolia L. (flowers) White Petals, anthers, and stigmas absorb UV, nectaria have strong UV fluorescence Drosera longifolia L. (leaves)

(yellowish green, red tentacles)

Leaf blade absorbs UV, viscous fluid drops on insect-catching tentacles have strong UV fluorescence

Ericaceae

Andromeda polifolia L. Pink red   Calluna vulgaris L. Greyish purple   Erica tetralix L. Pinkish red   Loiseleuria procumbens (L.)Dum Pinkish white Intermediate - strong

Fabaceae

Lathyrus linifolius (Reichard)Bässler Variegated purple - greyish violet No bull's eye pattern, but high UV reflectance of corolla Lathyrus odoratus L. Pink No bull's eye pattern, but significant UV reflectance of corolla Lathyrus pratensis L Yellow No bull's eye pattern, but high UV reflectance of corolla Lotus corniculatus L. Yellow or Reddish tinged Indistinct, variegated stripes on corolla Vicia sepium L. Mauve or light pink Very weak UV signs, but the corolla does reflect UV and additonally shows fluorescence Gentaniaceae Centaurium littorale (Turner) Gilmour Pink or light purple Anthers and stigma strongly absorb UV

Geraniaceae

Geranium pratense L. Bluish or purple, often with a greyish tinge Variable-sized central UV absorbing spot, combined with UV-absorbing rays radiating outwards. IR reflectance is quite high, too Geranium sanguineum L. Scarlet or deep purplish red Strong, in combination with a radiating pattern on the petals. Strong IR reflectance Geranium robertianum L. Light purple Strong bull's-eye marking Geranium sylvaticum L. Purplish red Very strong bull's-eye pattern. Strong reflectance in near-IR Hypericaceae Hypericum maculatum Cr. Deep yellow Intermediate - strong Hypericum perforatum L. Deep yellow Intermediate - strong

Lamiaceae

Glechoma hederacea L. Bluish violet or purple No typical bull's eye pattern, but variegated stripes on petals from UV reflectance. Also distinguished by anthers which both reflect UV and show strong fluorescence under UV light. In addition, whole flower reflects strongly in the near-IR band. Stachys officinalis (L.)Trev. Purple Large areas of the corolla reflect UV strongly Liliaceae Gagea lutea (L.)Ker-Gawler Yellow Strong Gagea minima (L.)Ker-Gawler Yellow Strong Lilium bulbiferum L. Red Intermediate, some UV fluorescence Lythraceae Lythrum salicaria L. Purple Intermediate Nyctaginaceae Mirabilis jalapa L. Yellow Moderate UV reflectance of perianth, but significant UV fluorescence of corolla and pollen

Nymphaeaceae

Nuphar lutea (L.)Sibth. & Sm. Yellow   Nuphar lutea x pumila
(N. spenneriana) Yellow Strong, unusual circular pattern Nuphar pumila (Timm)DC. Yellow   Nymphaea alba L. White Intermediate Onagraceae Epilobium angustifolium L. Purplish red Weak Epilobium montanum L. Light red None Epilobium watsonii Light red   Oenothera biennis L. Light yellow Prominent and stunningly beautiful UV markings Oxalidaceae Oxalis fontana Bunge Light yellow Strong Papaveraceae Eschscholzia californica Cham. Bright yellow with orange marks on petals Very large UV marks, not coinciding with visual pattern Plantaginaceae Plantago media L. Light pink Very weak within the floral parts, some UV reflectance from upper part of stems and spikes

Primulaceae

Lysimachia nummularia L. Yellow Weak Lysimachia punctata L. Yellow None

Ranunculaceae

Anemone blanda Schott & Kotsky Purplish blue Strong UV pattern, high IR reflectance as well Anemone nemorosa L. White No bull's eye pattern discernible. Quite strong reflectance in near-IR Anemone ranunculoides L. Deep yellow Strong, indistinct secondary markings on petals Caltha palustris L. Deep yellow Strong, very large central zone with UV mark. Complex UV fluorescence patterns Eranthis hyemalis (L.)Salisb. Yellow Intermediate - strong Hepatica nobilis Schreb. Light blue Very strong UV reflectance (and in near-IR as well) Ranunculus acris L. Yellow Very prominent bull's-eye pattern, despite only moderate UV reflectance of the flower. A weak two-zoned pattern is present even in near-IR Ranunculus auricomis L. Yellow Weak, non-descript UV pattern Ranunculus ficaria L. Bright yellow Very strong bull's pattern in UV, also a similar pattern (but much weaker) found in near-IR Ranunculus repens L. Yellow Weak - intermediate Ranunculus reptans L. Yellow Strong, base of petals

Rosaceae

Agrimonia eupatoria L. Yellow High UV reflectance of petals, nectaria and styles absorb UV Comarum palustre L. Dark red or purple   Fragaria vesca L. White Weak, but detectable Fragaria vesca L. x viridis Duch. White Interestingly, the UV marks are intermediate to those of the parents Fragaria viridis Duch. White A bull's eye pattern is present, but not very strongly developed as the outer petals themselves reflect only moderately in UV. The bracts, however, are good UV reflectors Geum chiloënse Balb. Yellowish red Moderate - strong Geum urbanum L. Yellow Moderate - strong Potentilla anserina L. Dark yellow Extremely strong pattern, making this an ideal test object for UV photography Potentilla atrosanguinea Lodd. Reddish with darker centre Strong, but UV marks are located slightly different from visual clues Potentilla erecta (L.)Räusch. Yellow Extremely strong, excellent test object. UV fluorescence Potentilla fruticosa L. Bright yellow None. Petals with negligible UV reflectance Potentilla intermedia L. Deep yellow Strong, bracts and receptacle show UV fluorescence Potentilla norvegica L. Light yellow Intermediate - strong Potentilla recta L. Deep yellow Very strong, prominent UV marks. UV fluorescence of pollen and nectaria Potentilla reptans L. Deep yellow Very strong and prominent UV marks Potentilla rupestris L.
(Drymocallis rupestris) White Weak or intermediate Rosa dumalis Bechst. Pinkish red Weak, but present Rosa majalis L. Reddish Weak to intermediate

Scrophulariaceae

Digitalis purpurea L. Light red or creamy white Intermediate - strong Melampyrum pratense L. Yellowish Weak Linaria vulgaris L. Light yellow None Verbascum nigrum L. Yellow Intermediate - strong Verbascum phlomoides L. Yellow Intermediate - strong

Solanaceae

Hyoscyamus niger L. Dirty yellow and brown Very strong bull's-eye pattern present, also strong IR reflectance Solanum dulcamara L. Purple Weak - intermediate, not a typical bull's-eye pattern Solanum niger L. Whitish  

Violaceae

Viola arvense x tricolor White to yellow, some violet Weak UV reflectance, no clear-cut pattern Viola odorata L. Violet None, but slight UV reflectance of petals Viola tricolor L. Tricoloured white, yellow, and violet Weak, more or less coinciding with the visual clues
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